Skip to main content

School Desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia -- Digital Collection of the Old Dominion University Libraries


Books/Pamphlets -- Theses/Dissertations -- Articles -- Newspaper Articles-- Court Cases -- Web Sites -- Other


  • Alexander, William, Cassandra Newby-Alexander, and Charles H. Ford, eds. 2008. Voices from within the veil: African Americans and the experience of democracy. Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. (E185 .V65 2008)

  • Bartley, Numan V. 1969. The rise of massive resistance: Race and politics in the South during the 1950's. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. (F216.2.B37)

  • Brewbaker, John Joseph. 1960. Desegregation in the Norfolk public schools. Norfolk, Va.: Southern Regional Council. (Pamphlet, ILL)

  • Campbell, Ernest Queener. 1960. When a city closes its schools. Chapel Hill: Institute for Research in Social Science, University of North Carolina. (LA381.N8.C3)

  • Eaton, Susan E.  and Christina Meldrum. 1996. Broken promises: Resegregation in Norfolk, Virginia. In Dismantling desegregation: The quiet reversal of Brown v. Board of Education, ed. Gary Orfield and Susan E. Eaton: pp. 115-141. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. (LC212.62.O72 1996)

  • Ely, James W. 1976. The crisis of conservative Virginia: The Byrd organization and the politics of massive resistance. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. (LC214.22.V8E48)

  • Fisher, Paul L. and Ralph Lynn Lowenstein, eds. 1967. Race and the news media. New York: Praeger. (E185.61.F84 1965aa)

  • Ford, Charles H. 2008. The ecumenical moment: Religious support for integrated schools in Norfolk, 1954-1959. In Voices from within the veil: African American perspectives on democracy ed. William Alexander, Cassandra Newby-Alexander and Charles H. Ford:315-29. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. (E185 .V65 2008)

  • Gates, Robbins Ladew. 1964. The making of massive resistance: Virginia's politics of public school desegregation, 1954-1956. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. (LA379.G35 1964)

  • Gordon, Margaret L. 1988. A documented history of the First Baptist Church, Bute Street, Norfolk, Virginia, 1800-1988: Rev. Dr. G. Murray, pastor. Virginia Beach, Va.: Hill's Printing Co. (BX6480.V8.N83 1988)

  • Heidelberg, Andrew I. 2006. The Norfolk 17: A personal narrative on desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1958-1962. Pittsburgh, Pa.: RoseDog Books. (LC214.23.N75.H45 2006)

  • Jones, Leon. 1979. From Brown to Boston: Desegregation in education, 1954-1974. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press. (LC214.2.J6)

  • Lassiter, Matthew D. and Andrew B. Lewis. 1998. The moderates' dilemma: Massive resistance to school desegregation in Virginia. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. (LC214.22.V8.M63 1998)

  • Leidholdt, Alexander. 1997. Standing before the shouting mob: Lenoir Chambers and Virginia's massive resistance to public-school integration. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. (LC214.22.V8L45 1997)

  • Lewis, Earl. 1991. In their own interests: Race, class, and power in twentieth-century Norfolk, Virginia. Berkeley: University of California Press. (F234.N8.L48 1991)

  • Lightsey, William M. 1959. Organizing to save public schools: How Virginians rallied to the defense of the public school system in the Virginia Committee for Public Schools. Manassas, Va.: Messenger Press. (Pamphlet, Available PDF)

  • Littlejohn, Jeffrey L. and Charles Howard Ford. Elusive equality: Desegregation and resegregation in Norfolk's public schools. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2012. (LC214.23.N75 L58 2012 and electronic)

  • Mays, David John and Sweeney James R. 2008. Race, reason, and massive resistance: The diary of David J. Mays, 1954-1959. Politics and culture in the twentieth-century South. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press. (KF373.M393 A3 2008)

  • Muse, Benjamin. 1961. Virginia's massive resistance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. (LA379.M8)

  • ________. 1964. Ten years of prelude: The story of integration since the Supreme Court's 1954 decision. New York: Viking Press. (E185.61.M989)

  • Newby-Alexander, Cassandra, Jeffrey Littlejohn, Charles H. Ford, Sonia Yaco, and Norfolk Historical Society. 2009. Hampton roads: Remembering our schools. Charleston, SC: History Press.

  • Parramore, Thomas C., Peter C. Stewart, and Tommy Bogger. 1994. Norfolk: The first four centuries. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Chapter 25: A sojourn in the Byrd-cage.  (F234.N8.P375 1994)

  • Peltason, J. W. 1961. Fifty-eight lonely men: Southern Federal judges and school desegregation. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. (KF4155.P4)

  • Reif, Jane. 1960. Crisis in Norfolk. [Richmond] Virginia Council on Human Relations. (Item 054-001-005-001)

  • Rorer, Henry S. 1968. History of Norfolk public schools, 1681-1968. Unpublished manuscript. (LA381.N6.R6 1968)

  • White, Forrest R. 1992. Pride and prejudice: School desegregation and urban renewal in Norfolk, 1950-1959. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. (HT177.N66.W45 1992)


  • Burnette, Ann Elizabeth. 1996. A lost cause revisited: Virginia's massive resistance, 1954-1962. Ph.D., Northwestern University. (ILL)

  • Cool, Frank Warren, III. 1983. A study of the Norfolk public school desegregation process (Virginia). Ed.D., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. (LC214.23.N8C66 1983 Special Collections)

  • Ford, Nancy Parker. 1989. The peaceful resolution of Norfolk's integration crisis of 1958-1959. Thesis (MA), Old Dominion University. (LD4331.H47 F53)

  • Hershman, James Howard Jr. 1978. A rumbling in the museum: The opponents of Virginia's massive resistance. Ph.D., University of Virginia. (ILL)

  • Jewell-Jackson, Deborah Moira. 1995. Ending mandatory busing for desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia: A case study explaining the decision-making process in a formerly de jure southern school district. Ed.D., Harvard University. (LC214.23.N8J49 1995 Special Collections)

  • Leidholdt, Alexander Stewart. 1991. The "Virginian-Pilot" newspaper's role in moderating Norfolk, Virginia's 1958 school desegregation crisis.  Ph.D., Old Dominion University. (LD4331.U54L43)

  • Neff, David Pembroke. 1992. The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, 1954-1967. Thesis (MA), Old Dominion University. (LD4331.H47N44)

  • White, Forrest R. 1991. School desegregation and urban renewal in Norfolk, 1950-1959.  Ph.D., Old Dominion University. (LD4331.U54W39)


[Note: Various articles from 1950s and 1960s are included in the database.]

  • Bly, Antonio T. 1998. The thunder during the storm -- school desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia, 1957-1959:  A local history. Journal of Negro Education 67, no. 2: 106-114.

  • Carr, Leslie G. 1990. Resegregation: The Norfolk case. Urban Education 24, no. 4: 404-413.

  • Littlejohn, Jeffrey L. and Charles H. Ford. "Arthur D. Morse, School Desegregation, and the Making of CBS News, 1955–1964." American Journalism 31, no. 2 (2014): 166-185.

  • Littlejohn, Jeffrey L. and Charles H. Ford. "Moving 'Mere Pawns on the Chessboard': Walter E. Hoffman, Jr., School Desegregation, and Busing in Norfolk, Virginia." Southern Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal of the South 22, no. 2 (2015): 47-72.

  • Morris, James Mcgrath. 2001. A chink in the armor: The black-led struggle for school desegregation in Arlington, Virginia, and the end of massive resistance. Journal of Policy History 13, no. 3: 329-366.

  • Newman, Mark. 1997. The Baptist General Association of Virginia and desegregation, 1931-1980. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 105, no. 3: 257-.

  • Pace, David. 1974. Lenoir Chambers opposes massive resistance: An editor against Virginia's democratic organization, 1955-1959. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 82, no. 4: 415-429.

  • Parkinson, Robert G. 2004. First from the right: Massive resistance and the image of Thomas Jefferson in the 1950s. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 112, no. 1: 2-35.

  • Robinson, William H. 1959. Integration's delay and frustration tolerance. Journal of Negro Education 28, no. 4: 472-475.

  • Rosenthal, Steven J. 1979. Racism and desegregation at Old Dominion University. Integrated Education 17, no. 1-2: 40-42.

  • Virginia's 'massive resistance' laws declared unconstitutional. 1959. Journal of Negro Education 28, no. 2: 163-172.

  • White, Forrest R. 1994. Brown revisted. Phi Delta Kappan 76, no. 1: 13-20.


[Note: Various articles from 1950s and 1960s are included in the database.]

  • Bradley, Paul. "Norfolk integration still elusive." The Virginian-Pilot, May 16, 2004. (Factiva)

  • Friddell, Guy. "Taking a stand: A historian details the impact of a courageous newspaper editor on Norfolk's integration struggle." The Virginian-Pilot, May 4, 1997 (Lexis-Nexis)

  • Friedman, Vicki L. "Busting through the color line:  Norview's Andy Heidelberg recalls the role he played in integrating high school sports in Virginia." The Virginian-Pilot, February 26, 1995.

  • Garza, Sonja. "Veteran recalls crossing color line at Virginia high school." San Antonio Express-News, February 29, 2004. (Lexis-Nexis)

  • Gruss, Mike  and Philip Walzer. "Pioneers of Progress." (Series:  Brown v. Board of Education:  1954-2004). The Virginian-Pilot, February 1, 2004. (Factiva)

  • Guy, Louis. "Massive resistance had many victims." The Virginian-Pilot, July 4, 2004. (Factiva)

  • King, Kristen. "Granby's 'Lost Class' seeks diplomas." The Virginian-Pilot, February 25, 2004 (Factiva)

  • Kruse, Meredith. "Standing up for history: City recognizes former students for their role on racial front line." The Virginian-Pilot, February 27, 2002. (Lexis-Nexis)

  • Mooney, Jeanne. "A reflection of diversity:  Schools promote awareness of heritages; and some teachers provide living lessons." The Virginian-Pilot, August 15, 2002. (Factiva)

  • Morgan, Nicole. "A turning point in history:  Event remembers the 'Norfolk 17'.”  (Series: Brown V. Board Of Education:  1954-2004.) The Virginian-Pilot, May 17, 2004.

  • Murphy, John. "A testimony to hope: Shunned by Norfolk's schools, 17 black students were educated at First Baptist Church until desegregation was recognized." The Virginian-Pilot, January 5, 1998. (Lexis-Nexis)

  • Pressley, Sue Anne and  Bobbye Pratt. "A personal history lesson:  Va. high school classmates face their own legacy." Washington Post, May 2, 2004. (Factiva)

  • Stone, Steve. "Attempting to end segregation, courts order busing; Angry whites respond by placing their children in private or suburban schools." The Virginian-Pilot, October 31, 1999 (Lexis-Nexis)

  • Stone, Steve. "'Massive resistance' deepens a racial wound;  Virginia defies federally mandated desegregation by closing its schools." The Virginian-Pilot, August 29, 1999.

  • Wharton, Tony. "Church recalls its help for students fighting for right 17 got advice, support to integrate." Roanoke Times & World News, January 4, 1998. (Factiva)

  • Wharton, Tony. "Norfolk 17 celebrate 40 years after a civil rights milestone closure of six public schools put city, state in Federal battle." The Virginian-Pilot, January 3, 1998. (Factiva)


  • Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. 1954. 347 U.S.483. Supreme Court of the United States. (link)

  • Leola Pearl Beckett v. The School Board of the City of Norfolk, Virginia. In Federal Supplement, 148:430: United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Norfolk Division (no. 2214). (The Norfolk Desegregation Papers (MG-92) contain depositions, briefs, interrogatories and proceedings for this case from 1957-1970.)

  • Ruth Pendleton James, a minor, etc., et al. v. J. Lindsay Almond, Jr., Governor of Virginia, et al. 1959. In Federal Supplement, 170:331: United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Norfolk Division.

  • Ruth Pendleton James, a minor, etc., et al. v. W. Fred Duckworth, et al. 1959. In Federal Supplement, 170:342: United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Norfolk Division. Duckworth v. James appeal - May 18, 1959 decided - 267 F. 2d 224





Select the collections to add or remove from your search